Getting started with Git and Github

Git Command Summary

Git task Notes Git commands

Check out a repository

Create a working copy of a local repository: git clone /path/to/repository
For a remote server, use: git clone username@host:/path/to/repository


Commit changes to head (but not yet to the remote repository): git commit -m "Commit message"
Commit any files you've added with git add, and also commit any files you've changed since then: git commit -a
Fetch Downloads changes from remote repository into local repo. git push origin master
git push <remote-name> <branch-name>
Push Write changes up to the master branch of your remote repository: git push origin master
git push <remote-name> <branch-name>
Status List the files you've changed and those you still need to add or commit: git status

Connect to a remote repository

If you haven't connected your local repository to a remote server, add the server to be able to push to it: git remote add origin <server>
List all currently configured remote repositories: git remote -v
Show list of branches for a remote repository git remote show <repository>
git remote show origin


Create a new branch and switch to it: git checkout -b <branchname>
Switch from one branch to another: git checkout <branchname>
List all the branches in your repo, and also tell you what branch you're currently in: git branch
Delete the feature branch: git branch -d <branchname> /*safe*/
git branch -d <branchname> /*force*/
Push the branch to your remote repository, so others can use it: git push origin <branchname>
Push all branches to your remote repository: git push --all origin
Delete a branch on your remote repository: git push origin :<branchname>

Update from the remote repository

Fetch and merge changes on the remote server to your working directory: git pull
To merge a different branch into your active branch: git merge <branchname>
View all the merge conflicts:View the conflicts against the base file:
Preview changes, before merging:
git diffgit diff --base <filename>
git diff <sourcebranch> <targetbranch>
After you have manually resolved any conflicts, you mark the changed file: git add <filename>

Undo local changes

If you mess up, you can replace the changes in your working tree with the last content in head:Changes already added to the index, as well as new files, will be kept. git checkout -- <filename>
Instead, to drop all your local changes and commits, fetch the latest history from the server and point your local master branch at it, do this: git fetch origin

git reset --hard origin/master
Search Search the working directory for foo(): git grep "foo()"

Pull Request Tutorial

Pull Requests are commonly used by teams and organizations collaborating using the Shared Repository Model, where everyone shares a single repository and topic branches are used to develop features and isolate changes. Many open source projects on Github use pull requests to manage changes from contributors as they are useful in providing a way to notify project maintainers about changes one has made and in initiating code review and general discussion about a set of changes before being merged into the main branch. See article here

Git Pull Request Example

cd /repos

git checkout master

git pull  #fast forward

git checkout -b <username>/<branchname>

vim <filename>

git status

git add .

git status

git commit -am "<branch change desc>"

git status

git pull

git push --set-upstream origin <username>/<branchname><project>/<repos>/pulls (New pull request)

git checkout master

git pull

Git pull example

Git Basics

Command Description
$git init <name> Initialize Local Git <name> Repository for current directory, creates .git directory
$git add <file> Add files to index i.e. *.php or git add . will add all files
$git commit -m 'message' Commit changes in index to local repository (-m) with commit message
$git status Show what is in the staging area
$git diff --stagged Show file differences between staging and the last file version
$touch .gitignore Ignore this list of files or patterns not to add to repository
$git show Alias for git log -p -n 1
$git log Show recent activity
$git reflog show ref log history
$git remote Show remote repositories
$git remote add origin URL Add a remote repository, like from Github
$git push -u origin master Push to remote repository, will prompt for login to github
$git pull Clone repository into a new directory

Git Branching

Command Description
$git branch Show branches
$git branch <mybranch> Create a new branch, does not change to the new branch
$git checkout <mybranch> Switch to the <mybranch> branch
$git git merge <mybranch> Merge the changes in <mybranch> back into Master branch

Git Plumbing

Command Description
$git cat-file <SHA1> Show content (-t) type (-s) size (-p) pretty, of objects in repository
$git hash-object Calculate SHA1 hash of object or file, optionally create blob from file
$git count-objects -H Count unpacked number of objects (-H) human readable

Git Alias

You can use git aliases, e.g.

git config --global alias.add-commit '!git add -A && git commit'

and use it with

git add-commit -m 'My commit message'

Introduction and Installation

Difference between Git and any other VCS

Git Downloads 

GUI Clients

Git Overview Slides

Git Cheat Sheet1 Sheet2

Install Git

GitHub provides desktop clients that include a graphical user interface for the most common repository actions and an automatically updating command line edition of Git for advanced scenarios.

GitHub Desktop

Git distributions for Linux and POSIX systems are available on the official Git SCM website.

Git for all platforms

Git Structure

git object store

git hierarchy

Git Workflow

git flow

Git Contribute to Project

git Contribute

Full Git Reference

Configure tooling

Configure user information for all local repositories

$ git config --global "[name]"

Sets the name you want attached to your commit transactions

$ git config --global "[email address]"

Sets the email you want attached to your commit transactions

Create repositories

Start a new repository or obtain one from an existing URL

$ git init [project-name]

Creates a new local repository with the specified name

$ git clone [url]

Downloads a project and its entire version history

Make changes

Review edits and craft a commit transaction

$ git status

Lists all new or modified files to be committed

$ git diff

Shows file differences not yet staged

$ git add [file]

Snapshots the file in preparation for versioning

$ git diff --staged

Shows file differences between staging and the last file version

$ git reset [file]

Unstages the file, but preserves its contents

$ git commit -m"[descriptive message]"

Records file snapshots permanently in version history

Group changes

Name a series of commits and combine completed efforts

$ git branch

Lists all local branches in the current repository

$ git branch [branch-name]

Creates a new branch

$ git checkout [branch-name]

Switches to the specified branch and updates working directory

$ git merge [branch-name]

Combines the specified branch’s history into the current branch

$ git branch -d [branch-name]

Deletes the specified branch

Refactor file names

Relocate and remove versioned files

$ git rm [file]

Deletes the file from the working directory and stages the deletion

$ git rm --cached [file]

Removes the file from version control but preserves the file locally

$ git mv [file-original] [file-renamed]

Changes the file name and prepare it for commit

Suppress tracking

Exclude temporary files and paths


A text file named .gitignore suppresses accidental versioning of files and paths matching the specified patterns

$ git ls-files --others --ignored --exclude-standard

Lists all ignored files in this project

Save fragments

Shelve and restore incomplete changes

$ git stash

Temporarily stores all modified tracked files

$ git stash pop

Restores the most recently stashed files

$ git stash list

Lists all stashed changesets

$ git stash drop

Discards the most recently stashed changeset

Review history

Browse and inspect the evolution of project files

$ git log

Lists version history for the current branch

$ git log --follow [file]

Lists version history for the file, including renames

$ git diff [first-branch]...[second-branch]

Shows content differences between two branches

$ git show [commit]

Outputs metadata and content changes of the specified commit

Redo commits

Erase mistakes and craft replacement history

$ git reset [commit]

Undoes all commits after [commit], preserving changes locally

$ git reset --hard [commit]

Discards all history and changes back to the specified commit

Synchronize changes

Register a remote (URL) and exchange repository history

$ git fetch [remote]

Downloads all history from the remote repository

$ git merge [remote]/[branch]

Combines the remote branch into the current local branch

$ git push [remote] [branch]

Uploads all local branch commits to GitHub

$ git pull

Downloads bookmark history and incorporates changes

Other Tools

When you install Git, you also get its visual tools, gitk